Climate change

The Greenhouse Gas Emission in Coffee Production And Reduction Measures
The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from agricultural activities have an important role in the agricultural sector to help improving the ability to adapt to climate change impacts as well as improving productivity and reliability in sustainable agricultural production. This lesson focuses on the analysis of GHG emissions and recommends mitigation measures in the main stages of the coffee supply chain.

A. Introduction
The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from agricultural activities have an important role in the agricultural sector to help improving the ability to adapt to climate change impacts as well as improving productivity and reliability in sustainable agricultural production. This lesson focuses on the analysis of GHG emissions and recommends mitigation measures in the main stages of the coffee supply chain.
B. Purpose

After studying this lesson, students will be able to:
- Fully explain the GHG emissions at every stage of the production chain of coffee.
- A systematic measures at every stage of the coffee production chain to reduce GHG emissions .
C. Lessons’ Content

1. Supply chain of coffee and greenhouse gas emissions
Coffee production activities also contribute to GHG emissions - the main cause of the phenomenon of climate change. The greenhouse gas emissions occur not only in production but also in all other stages in the coffee supply chain processing, roasting, transport, packaging, retail, dispensing.
  It is necessary to have the cooperation of all the actors in the chain to reduce GHG emissions to the environment.
Therefore, the coffee industry not only pay attention to adaptation (to help farmers adapting to climate change), but also pay attention to mitigating the negative impacts of climate change (reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the environment).

Short-term mitigation strategies including analysis, calculations and reduce carbon emissions in the coffee chain and the feasibility of creating carbon tanks..
Long-term strategy is to link the producing units, especially the coffee farmers with the carbon market to maximize the opportunities of this market, to provide the financial actors in the coffee supply chain  to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change for the whole industry

2. Emissions from cultivating fields - Mitigation Measures
2.1. Stitching, cutting, shaping, pruning
* Impacts:
- The cutting excessively  will reduce the surface temporarily, causing evaporation from trees and ground, this is particularly disadvantageous in the hot dry season.
- The crop residues (stems, leaves ...) after cutting, shaping and  pruning if burying will creat CH4, and if burning will  creat CO2.
* Mitigation Measures

- Avoid pruning in the dry season and the rainy season.
- Pruning with proper technique to remove the invalid branch (branch, absorption and transport of nutrients things but do not have a capacity), remove diseased branches, avoiding the flowers themselves far as transport of limited nutrients  and enhanced ventilation canopy photosynthesis for plants.
- Use by-products from the shaping, pruning (stems, leaves ... cut to squeeze green,buried in the rib) to reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer, enhanced nutrient source for the plant by-products .
2.2. Watering

* Impacts:
- Watering often use the energy to run machines such as electricity, gas, fuel oil when burned .. CO2 emissions. Power consumption and indirect CO2 emissions.
- So, the excessively watering will cause (i) Waste of fuel, increases emissions; (ii) Cost of labor (increased CO2 emissions from the operation eat, drink, walk, bathe the producer).
* Measures:
- Irrigation correct, sufficient irrigation comply with the norms produced by the scientist and the authorities warned. Avoid excessive watering even in places with abundant water resources and may  flowing watering.
- Use of irrigation equipment capable of saving fuel (with electrical equipment, as a new generation of electricity savings as high).
- When choosing electrical equipment (pump, generator ...), should choose more step motor speed or adjust parts come to save electricity.
- Install electrical equipment proberly and sciencific contribute huge power savings. Example: pump placed in the proper location will flow smoothly, avoid overloading the machine.

- When using the pump if leaking water, it will waste electric. The valves usually have to inspect.
- Increased use of clean energy sources, energy sources are renewable or less GHG emissions using: solar energy, wind energy, wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, hydroelectric energy, bioenergy ...

- Cover stock to reduce evaporation, need to build water storage system to provide water for crops during the dry season.
- Plant fence, windbreak tree, shade trees to limit evaporation, reducing the intensity of sunlight and temperature and humidity to help maintaining the garden.
2.3. Fertilization

* Impacts:
- Full Fertilization and balance as the coffee needs still cause GHG emissions, due to the utilization of nitrogen fertilizers of coffee never reach 100%.
- Unbalance and excessive nitrogen Fertilization will cause more CO2 and N2O emissions.
- Abuse of excess inorganic fertilizer will increase the acidity and change concentrations of micronutrients in the soil medium (such as S, P, Cu, Zn, ...)
* Measures:

- Fertilize the right time (when fertilizing soil moist enough to soluble fertilizer into the soil, to avoid evaporation, avoid applying fertilizer when heavy rains washed away, avoid fertilizing on  dry soil  to reduce evaporation, improve efficiency fertilizer application).
- Fertilizing balancely as recommended by the scientists.
- Increased use of organic and microbiological manure have effects in addition to nutritional supplements also help boost the use of chemical fertilizers, thereby reducing the demand for mineral fertilizer plant (type of distribution high amount of GHG emissions). This is also a measure to improve the retention of nutrients and water by plants and is an effective tool to prevent erosion.

- Develop a prevent erosion system:  planting barried by green manure, legumes as contour line or create ditch to prevent erosion during the rainy season, reducing the amount of nutrients being washed sediment in the rainy season ...
3. Emissions from processing - Mitigation Measures

3.1. shipping
* Impact
-Transportation (cars, tractors, motorcycles, ...) during transport of fresh fruit to producing place and sell place... are consuming fossil fuels (petrol) causes CO2 emissions.
- Pollution, especially when using the old engine.
* Measures:

- Develop the processing plant near the coffee plantations to shorten the distance and transit time.
- The use of vehicles consume less fuel, less emissions.
- Check, replacement and routine maintenance of vehicles.
- When using a private vehicle, it combines many people if possible
3.2. Wet Processing

* Impact
- Wet Processing technology is consuming electricity, water, fuel (petrol) all CO2 emissions resulting directly or indirectly.
- Defects processing (fresh pods) during decomposition of CH4 emissions.
- Waste water from wet processing causes pollutants and emissions of CH4 and N2O.
* Measures

- Reduce the amount of water used for wet processing to a reasonable level.
- Use less fuel, fuel consumption, low emissions.
- Use of additives, waste to compost organic fertilizer (compost process must cover to reduce evapotranspiration and CH4 and N2O emissions)
- Having waste water treatment systems with environmental standards and regulations of the law.
- Reuse of treated water for irrigation and cooling of machinery, motors.
3.3. Drying
* Impact
- Use dry fuel (coal, wood ...) and electricity to run the dryer cause CO2 emissions.
* Measures
- Use natural, reasonable fuel savings;
- Use the dryer can be stored in hot air, if conditions permit;
- Use of renewable fuel for drying coffee machine;
- Use the available material, byproduct from coffee husk ...
- Use solar energy in areas where conditions.
4. Emissions at the stage of roasting - Mitigation Measures

* Impact
- Use the roasted fuel, electric roaster, blender, all cause CO2 emissions.
- Grinding change the composition of the particles of coffee, many compounds in the seeds were destroyed and burned to cause CO2.
- Roaster increases CO2 escaped from the roasted seeds.

* Measures

- Use natural, reasonable fuel savings;
- Use of renewable fuel for roasting machine, coffee grinder;
- Avoid fire roasting process;
- Use the available material, byproduct from coffee pulp as raw material ... to roast, grind.
 D. Conclusion

The cause of the current climate, typical of global warming has been generally confirmed by human activities, including the activities of agricultural production in general and the manufacturing and supply of products coffee in particular played a part in this process because of the greenhouse gases emitted from every stage of production, processing and sales of products.
In basic, mitigating the negative impacts of climate change is the implementation of activities aimed at reducing the level or intensity of greenhouse gas emissions in every stage of the value chain of coffee.

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