Climate change

Impact of Climate Change to coffee production
The impacts of climate change on coffee production is not easy to recognize on the scope of each and every farm garden, so coffee farmers are not willing to consider the use of prevention measures .That the climate change is happening for long process and its impact is very slow, but if you do not recognize the risks that may occur with coffee production under climate change impacts, it is hard can make the measures effective prevention tool.

A. Introduction
The impacts of climate change on coffee production is not easy to recognize on the scope of each and every farm garden, so coffee farmers are not willing to consider the use of prevention measures .That the climate change is happening for long process and its impact is very slow, but if you do not recognize the risks that may occur with coffee production under climate change impacts, it is hard can make the measures effective prevention tool.
When considering the impact of climate change on coffee production, it refers primarily to the major factor is the temperature, precipitation, and some extreme climate phenomena other.
B Lesson objective
 After studying this lesson, students will be able to:
- Explain the full impact of climate change on coffee production in general.
- Analysis of the impact of climate change  affect  to coffee production activities in the coffee growing areas in Vietnam.
C. Lesson Content
1. The type of coffee and climate
Temperature and rainfall are the two main factors affecting the production and the production of coffee. Two species are coffee (Arabica) and robusta coffee (Robusta), accounting for 99% of the coffee in the world, with different requirements for temperature and precipitation.
Arabica originally grows in the shade highland forests of Ethiopia, where there is a unique dry season coincides with the winter months. The ideal temperature for Arabica coffee in about 15 -240C. higher temperatures will impact negatively on the yield and quality. require annual rainfall ranges from 1500 - 2000 mm, although the measures applied by watering allowed Arabica coffee is grown in places with lower rainfall.
Robusta originally grows in the lowland equatorial Africa, especially in the jungles of the Congo River Basin and Lake Victoria in Uganda. It grows best in areas with high rainfall, about 2000 mm / year, with elevations from sea level to 800 meters. uneven distribution of rainfall required in most months of the year ,due to Robusta has shallow root system. Ideal temperature range for Robusta range 22 - 260C. Robusta bears heat resistant high temperature and low temperature less than Arabica.
2. Climate change and quality
As the temperature increases, coffee ripes faster, that causes reduced quality. This fact is reinforced by the fact that the Arabica coffee grown in the tropical low at high temperatures often have lower quality than coffee is grown in the same category where high altitude. Coffee bean usually is more porous and can be larger but lower quality. Assuming the temperature at the end of this century will increase by 30c (some experts believe that it may rise further to 50C), the height limit for growing high-quality Arabica coffee may increase 5m each year, which means that the area historically been considered too cold for coffee, the latter will become suitable for coffee (for example in the areas of Nepal and China′s Yunnan province). Whether the uncertainty is still high in the land available for growing coffee

.3. Climate Change and Productivity
If the climatic factors such as high temperatures occur in the sensitive stage in the life cycle of coffee, for example, the period of flowering and fruit setting, it will severely reduced productivity, especially when high temperatures go accompanied by a decrease in rainfall or drought period. The study also showed that when high temperatures during flowering and fruit setting, in Arabica phenomenon will appear deformed flowers (star flowers) and robusta coffee with pollen will die or decrease vitality, making the process of pollination, fertilization of flowers disorders, and the consequences are not many particles are formed, leading to reduced productivity.
When high temperature exceeds the appropriate plant photosynthetic efficiency of plants reduced dry matter accumulation process and ultimately less yield.
4. Effects of climate change to pests
High temperatures not only creates favorable conditions for a certain pests but also help to spread their reaching to areas previously not appear. Studies have shown that the weevil pests as well as fruit, maggots leaf miner, nematodes and rust and some other types will increase in the future if the temperature increases. Consequently, the management and control of pests and diseases in the future will be both complex just more expensive.tăng cao. Hậu quả là công tác quản lý và phòng trừ sâu bệnh hại trong tương lai sẽ vừa phức tạp vừa đắt đỏ hơn.
5. Climate change and irrigation
The coffee growing areas previously not need watering, the future may need watering due to high temperature evaporation is strong, reduce soil moisture. the extraction of water for irrigation led to the need to build dams and reservoirs to store water and groundwater extraction, lead to lower groundwater level, cause fuel costs and irrigation, and ultimately increase the cost of production.Meanwhile in other regions may increase the distribution of rainfall and rainfall distribution in year may fluctuate.
In the case of the Central Highlands, if climate change in the direction of redistribution of rainfall between the months of the year (reduced rainfall in August and September, but rains in March and early April) it will be very lucky for coffee plantations here, as it helps reduce the cost of irrigation farmers, has created conditions for the coffee grow larger
6. Effect of erratic rainfall
Unseasonal rain during flowering affect the fruiting, especially for Robusta coffee is mandatory cross-pollinating species, wet pollen dispersal out to the flower to another tree. Rain during harvest will complicate the process of drying and compromising quality. Berries after harvest if stored for several days, it will not be exposed to moldy, bean changes color (green immature seeds  convertes into black, ripe seed changes to brown) and water smells strange.
In the Highlands, robusta coffee is usually ripe concentrated in November and early December 12. If the rain lasted until the end of December, the work of harvesting, drying difficulties, leading to reduced quality personnel. The incessant rain later also spent the flower of the coffee tree was delayed or reduced, affecting the productivity potential of the coming season.
At the cumulative effect of maximum dry matter (with robusta coffee in the Central Highlands usually in August to September), if the rain lasted for many days will hinder photosynthesis of plants, lack of energy trees, so accumulation is reduced and may cause green fruit abscission. Prolonged rain  encreases humidity , favorable for the fungus as Fusarium , pink fungus kill branch,  decreased as leaf photosynthetic capacity, the plant can be harmful grain yield and quality are reduced.
However, prolonged rain, but also face certain benefits: plant has enough water to absorb nutrients more easily, better growth, reduce some deep sucking bugs (like aphids green, cream usually develop during the rainy season ) so the productivity potential in the adjacent higher in the next crop. When the rainy season last more than the dry season will shrink, reduce stress and irrigation costs.

7. Effect of prolonged drought
Time of dry season more prolonged than the rule in the water need of coffee growing areas will more aggravated.Increase irrigation demand, water use consumes more energy and irrigation, decrease groundwater levels  but increase irrigation costs. In case of water shortage, the lack of water damaged trees, young fruit fall, some pests such as aphids, aphid have favourable conditional to grow
.8. Effect of wind
Strong winds in the dry season will increase evaporation from plants and soil, making the need for irrigation increases. Strong winds in both rainy and dry seasons are hurting the coffee trees, shade trees and windbreak mechanically (broken branches, fallen leaves). The situation becomes more serious if the frequent strong winds in the dry season combined with heat
9. Climate change and land degradation
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the practice of land management will be the most influential factor to the organic matter content of the soil in the next decade. Climate change is sure to increase the frequency of occurrence of strong winds and heavy rain. Heavy rains combined wind is the main cause of erosion, leaching of soil and nutrients from the soil, reduce water retention capacity of the soil, leading to degradation of soil fertility and soil cultivation will be thinner. This is especially important in arid and semi-arid, especially when combined with increased temperature factors.

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